JCS 1779 PDF
Juni In , Morgenthau proposed the Morgenthau Plan for postwar Germany, calling for Germany to lose the heavy industry, and the Ruhr area. It took over two months for General Clay to overcome continued resistance to the new directive JCS , but on July 10, , it was finally. was superseded by the more accommodative JCS The first American Military Government Commander in Germany was. Dwight D. Eisenhower (of World.
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This page was last edited on 3 Decemberat To the extent necessary you will establish administrative machinery, not dependent upon German authorities and agencies, to execute or assure the execution of the provisions 177 paragraphs 19, 20, 30, 31, 32, 39 and 40 and any other measures necessary to an accomplishment of your industrial disarmament objectives.
You will permit free collective bargaining between employees and employers regarding wage, hour and working conditions and the establishment of machinery for the settlement of jcd disputes. Germany needed to be punished for wrongdoing, but it was also essential to revive the German economy for its necessary contribution to European recovery.
For purposes of administration of military government, Germany has been divided into four zones of occupation. As late as March there were still active plans to let France annex the Ruhr. In the case particularly of property blocked under 1 a above, you will proceed to adopt licensing measures which while maintaining such property under surveillance would permit its use in consonance with this directive.
Struck by this, Roosevelt said he had “no idea how he could have initialed this”.
JCS | gooldsteins view on the topics in the world
These surveys should be developed in such manner as to serve as a basis for determining changes in the measures of control set forth herein as well as for the progressive formulation and development of policies to promote the basic objectives of the United States.
To take a recent example, the Morgenthau plan gave Dr. Pending agreement in the Control Council, you may permit such conversion in your zone.
The agency states that the purpose of JCSwhich replaced JCSwas to increase German 17779 at the regional level, limit dismantling of war industries, raise living standards, and remove dependence on subsidies. Removal of plants and equipment by members of the United Nations as restitution and reparation Paragraph 4. In addition to the above courses of action, there have been general policies of destruction or limitation jxs possible peaceful productivity under the headings of “pastoral state” and “war potential”.
You will not postpone enforcement of the prohibitions contained in 7179 a and b and the instructions in subparagraph c without specific approval of your government through the Joint Chiefs of Staff except that, in your discretion, you may permit the production jccs synthetic rubber and oil, aluminum and magnesium, to the minimum 11779 necessary to meet the purposes stated in paragraphs 4 and 5 of the directive pending action by the Joint Chiefs of Staff upon such recommendation for postponement as you may make.
The directive was formally issued to Eisenhower in the spring ofand it applied only to the US zone although attempts had been made to get the other Allies to accept it. In view of increased concerns jcz General Lucius D. Pending agreement in the Control Council, you will put such measures into effect in jvs own zone as soon as you have had an opportunity to review and determine production necessary for the purposes stated in paragraphs 4 and 5 of this directive.
All ordinary criminal, civil and administrative courts, except those previously re-established by order jvs the military government, will be closed. It makes no sense to forbid the most skilled workers in Europe from producing as much as they can in a continent that is desperately short of everything. In no event shall any differentiation be made between or special consideration be accorded to persons arrested, either as to manner of arrest or conditions of detention, upon the basis of wealth or political, industrial, or other rank or position.
The Agonies of German Defeat, Mainsprings of the German Revival p. The four Commanders-in-Chief, acting jointly, will constitute the Control Council in Germany which will be the supreme organ of control over Germany in accordance with 179 agreement on Control Machinery in Germany. The authority of the Control Council to formulate policy and procedures and administrative relationships with respect to matters affecting Germany as a whole will be paramount throughout Germany.
Courts which are to exercise jurisdiction over territory extending beyond the boundaries of your zone will be reopened only with the express authorization of the Control Council and under its regulation, supervision and control.
You will assure the mcs effectuation of that policy in your zone and jce make every effort to prevent the reconstitution of any such organization in underground, disguised or secret form. You will prohibit all cartels or other private business arrangements and cartel-like organizations, including those of a public or quasi-public character such as the Wirtschaftsgruppen providing for the regulation of marketing conditions, including production, prices, exclusive exchange of technical information and processes, and allocation of sales territories.
It is not anticipated that you will make credits available to the Reichsbank or any other bank or to any public or private institution. You jca take all practicable economic and police measures to assure that German resources are fully utilized and consumption held to the minimum in order that imports may be strictly limited and that jfs may be made available for the occupying forces and displaced persons and United Nations prisoners of war, and for reparation.
No extension of credit to Germany or Germans by any foreign person or Government shall be permitted except that the Control Council may in special emergencies grant permission for such extensions of credit. In November General Dwight D.
Prelude Africa Asia Europe. Some have read into the clause “from whom we had much to ask” that Churchill was bought off, and note a September 15 memo from Roosevelt to Hull stating that “Morgenthau has presented at Quebec, in conjunction kcs his plan for Germany, a proposal of credits to Britain totalling six and half billion dollars.
Some progress has been made in converting Germany to an agricultural and light industry economy, said Brigadier General William H.
As a member of the Control Council you will urge the adoption by the other occupying powers of the principles and policies set forth in this directive and, pending Control Council agreement, jds will follow them in your zone.
Allied Military marks and Reichsmark currency and coin now in circulation in Germany will be legal tender without distinction and will be interchangeable at the rate of one Allied Military mark for one Reichsmark.
Subject to military security and the interests of the individuals concerned, you will release all jds found within your zone who have been detained or placed in custody on grounds of 11779, nationality, creed or political opinions and treat them as displaced persons.
From Pearl Harbor to Hiroshima]. Berlin in Modern Europe: At most, the short-lived approval of the Morgenthau Plan by Roosevelt might possibly be seen jxs a guiding principle of his policy toward Germany, especially since important elements of this plan found their way into [JCS ].
Morgenthau Plan – Wikipedia
The German Federal Agency for Civic Education BPD asserts that the Morgenthau Plan was never implemented and was only briefly supported by Roosevelt,  and that JSCwhile treating Germany as a defeated enemy state instead of a liberated nation jjcs aiming at the dismantling of German industries, also left loopholes that allowed a military governor to later implement more lenient policies.
Lord Cherwell has been described as having “an almost pathological hatred for Nazi Germany, and an almost medieval desire for revenge was a part of his character”.
The Real History of the Cold War: You will take no action that would tend to support basic living standards in Germany on a higher level than that existing in any one of the neighboring United Nations and you will take appropriate measures to ensure that basic living standards of the German people are not higher than those existing in any one of the neighboring United Nations when such measures will contribute to raising the standards of any such nation.
You will make special efforts to preserve from destruction and take under your control records, plans, books, documents, papers, files, and scientific, industrial and other information and data belonging to or controlled by the following:. Eisenhowerthe Military Governor of the US Occupation Zoneapproved the distribution of free copies of the book to American military officials in occupied Germany. Hilldring responded that it was better to have something than nothing and that it had been carefully drafted by Stimpson and his deputy McCloy to include loopholes.
Persons are to be treated as more than nominal participants in Party activities and as active supporters of Nazism or militarism when they have 1 held office or otherwise been active at any level from local to national in the party and its subordinate organizations, or in organizations which further militaristic doctrines, 2 authorized or participated affirmatively in any Nazi crimes, racial persecutions or discriminations, 3 been avowed believers in Nazism or racial and militaristic creeds, or 4 voluntarily given substantial moral or material support or political assistance of any kind to the Nazi Party or Nazi officials and leaders.
The “Morgenthau boys” resigned en masse when JCS was approved, but before they went, the Morgenthau followers in the decartelization division of OMGUS accomplished one last task in the spring of The Control Council should establish centralized control over all trade in goods and services with foreign countries. In such cases, the policies of the Potsdam agreement are controlling. Eisenhower relabeled as Disarmed Enemy Forces in order to negate the Geneva Conventionwere used as forced labor by the various Allied countries to work in camps outside Germany: A Handbook for Military Government in Germany was ready in Augustit was an occupation document which advocated a quick restoration of normal life for the German people and reconstruction of Germany.
Clay and the Joint Chiefs of Staff over communist influence in Germany, as well as of the failure of the rest of the European economy to recover without the German industrial base on which it was dependent, in the summer ofSecretary of State George Marshallciting “national security grounds”, was able to convince President Harry S.